Do they still make germanium transistors?

Most germanium transistor production ceased in the 1970s in favor of silicon which are more stable, consistent, have higher gain, and lower leakage.

Do germanium transistors sound better?

Many audiophiles told me that germanium “sounds” better than silicium, and this is the reason they prefer vintage amplifiers over more modern devices that adopt silicium.

What are germanium transistors?

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32, that’s used as a semiconductor in transistors and diodes, popping up in a few classic effects like the early period Arbiter Fuzz Face, the storied Dallas Rangemaster and the Maestro Fuzz-Tone.

Why was germanium used in early transistors?

Germanium played an essential role in the development of the first transistor and its usefulness as a semiconductor thus became recognized. The superior electron and hole mobility of germanium as well as its low melting point has spurred much research into replacing current silicon based devices with germanium.

How do you know if a transistor is silicon or germanium?

For any transistor, the test involves applying a current from base to emitter and measuring the current from collector to emitter. The other test would be the reverse current (leakage). With Silicon transistors, there’s a shade-tree trick using a VOM, but it does not work well with Germanium.

Is germanium better than silicon?

Why is silicon usually preferred to germanium in the manufacture of semiconductor devices? Silicon is abundant on the earth’s surface and therefore cheaper than germanium. The PIV (Peak Inverse Voltage) rating of silicon is much higher than germanium and therefore can withstand much higher temperatures than germanium.

Is the fuzz face silicon or germanium?

Fuzz pedals with germanium transistors tend to be a little more amp overdrive like. They’re smoother and warmer and can have a mid range boost. They also have more touch sensitivity and react really well to your guitar’s volume and tone knobs. Fuzz pedals with silicon transistors tend to have more top end treble.

What does a germanium transistor do?

The germanium transistor was the first to be mass-produced and made commercially available to the public. This transistor was used extensively in radio technology, helping to create the first portable AM radios, as well as the first car radios. It was even used in a few of the first guitar effect pedals in the 1960s.

What are germanium transistors used for?

Along with providing hairy and warmer touch to the tone germanium transistors are also used as essential elements to produce delightful acoustic tones. These transistors can also be used to modify old silicon-based fuzz pedals.

How is germanium used in electronics?

The largest use of germanium is in the semiconductor industry. When doped with small amounts of arsenic, gallium, indium, antimony or phosphorus, germanium is used to make transistors for use in electronic devices. Germanium is also used to create alloys and as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps.

Where can I find germanium diode?

You can easily distinguish Silicon and Germanium Diodes. Silicon diodes should read approx 0.7V and Germanium diodes should read 0.3V. A little difficult to distinguish Schottky diodes though. They should show approx 0.2V which is close to 0.3V.

When did Mullard come out with the oc70 transistor?

Mullard then developed a unique glass encapsulation, and in 1954 issued three new alloy-junction audio-frequency transistors, the OC70, OC71 and OC72. The image shows the OC70 and OC71 in the glass case, painted black, plus the OC72, a higher power type, achieved by slipping an aluminium can over the glass tube.

When was the transistor announced by Bell Labs?

When the transistor was announced by Bell Labs in 1948, two UK companies were not far behind in research terms, STC and GEC. Mullard had no semiconductor research laboratory as far as I know, and I suspect that Philips also had done little work in the field.

Is the ocp71 just an ordinary semiconductor junction?

It is well-known that semiconductor junctions can be light-sensitive, and there is a widely repeated story that the OCP71 is just an ordinary OC71 without the black paint (so-called ‘dope’). Because the OCP71 was more expensive, some people just scraped the paint off an OC71, to create an equivalent to the OCP71.