How are epiphyseal fractures classified?

The Salter-Harris system classifies growth plate fractures into five groups: type I, fracture through the growth plate; type II, fracture through the growth plate and metaphysis; type III, fracture through the growth plate and epiphysis; type IV, fracture through the growth plate, epiphysis and metaphysis, and type V.

What is a Physeal fracture?

Growth plate (physeal) fractures may be defined as disruptions in the cartilaginous physis of long bones that may or may not involve epiphyseal or metaphyseal bone.

How do you classify a distal radius fracture?


  1. type I: transverse metaphyseal fracture.
  2. type II: type I + ulnar styloid fracture.
  3. type III: fracture involves the radiocarpal joint.
  4. type IV: type III + ulnar styloid fracture.
  5. type V: transverse fracture involves distal radioulnar joint.
  6. type VI: type V + ulnar styloid fracture.

What is a comminuted fracture of distal radius?

Comminuted fractures involve multiple breaks of the distal radius. In this type of injury, the bone is broken into several pieces. Open Fracture. Open fractures are serious injuries that require immediate medical care. These injuries involve bone fractures which puncture the skin and are externally exposed.

Is metaphysis and Physeal the same?

Long bones in children have four distinct segments (Figure 1): The epiphysis is the region of bone adjacent to the joint surface. Below it lies the physis, the area where growth occurs. Distal to that is the metaphysis, a flared region of bone, and below that lies the narrower shaft of the bone, or diaphysis.

What does Physeal mean?

[ fĭz′ē-əl ] adj. Relating to the area of bone that separates the metaphysis and the epiphysis, in which the cartilage grows.

What does physeal mean?

Is metaphysis and physeal the same?

What is the classification of the radius?

Frykman classification

Radius Fracture Ulna Fracture
Absent Present
Extra-articular I II
Intra-articular involving radiocarpal joint III IV
Intra-articular involving DRUJ (distal radio-ulnar joint) V VI

What is an unstable distal radius fracture?

According to this definition, a distal radius fracture is unstable if three or more of the following factors are present: dorsal angulation exceeding 20°; dorsal comminution; intra-articular radiocarpal fracture; associated ulnar fracture; and age over 60 years.

What does comminuted fracture mean?

A comminuted (kah-muh-NOOT-ed) fracture is a type of broken bone. The bone is broken into more than two pieces.

What are the different types of distal radius fractures?

Traditionally, eponymous names were given to the common fracture types of the distal radius: 1 Colles fracture : transverse extra-articular fracture with dorsal angulation 2 Smith fracture : transverse fracture with palmar angulation 3 Barton fracture 4 chauffeur fracture More

Which is the most common type of physeal fracture?

The Salter-Harris type II fracture is the most common type. Distal radial physeal fractures are uncommon in children younger than five years. The most common mechanism of injury is a fall on an outstretched hand (Figure 1). Extension of the wrist at the time of injury causes the distal fragment to be displaced dorsally (posteriorly).

What are the symptoms of a distal radial physeal fracture?

There is usually pain and tenderness directly over the fracture site, and limited range of motion in the wrist and hand. There may be little, if any swelling. Deformity depends on the degree of physeal displacement.

When to apply plaster cast for distal radial physeal fracture?

Treatment can be determined according to the Salter-Harris classification (Table 2). Table 2: ED management of distal radial physeal fractures. Below-elbow plaster cast for 6 weeks. For young children, above-elbow casts may be applied