How does a stem cell differentiate into a specialized cell like a red blood cell?

A multipotent stem cell has the potential to differentiate into different types of cells within a given cell lineage or small number of lineages, such as a red blood cell or white blood cell. Stem cells are unique in that they can also continually divide and regenerate new stem cells instead of further specializing.

What type of cues are there for stem cells?

The stem cell as a mathematical integrator. Such cues can be chemical (e.g. soluble or cell-surface signaling molecules) or physical – involving the generation or modification of intra- or intercellular forces.

What is cell differentiation dependent on?

Cellular differentiation and organ formation are dependent on interactions between cells and tissues of different origins that are in close proximity to each other. The tissue that releases the signal is known as the inducer, while the “target tissue” is known as the responder.

Are stem cells specialized or unspecialized?

Stem cells have unspecialized capability and do not have tissue- specific structures to perform specialized functions. They can give rise to specialized cells: Stem cells go through a process called differentiation and create special types of cells (muscle, nerve, skin, etc.).

What type of cell did the stem cell differentiate into?

They can differentiate into pluripotent, totipotent, multipotent, and unipotent cells (Fig. 2) [2]. Pluripotent cells can be named totipotent if they can additionally form extraembryonic tissues of the embryo.

How do the mechanical properties of the microenvironment regulate the stem cell functions?

In recent years, research has shown that the mechanical properties of the microenvironment can regulate a variety of stem cell phenotypes by activating intracellular signal transduction leading to transcription.

How do stem cells differentiate?

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells that differentiate as a result of signaling mechanisms. The daughter cells divides and after each division it becomes more specialized. When it reaches a mature cell type downstream (for example, becomes a red blood cell) it will no longer divide.

What happens during cell differentiation?

Cell differentiation is how generic embryonic cells become specialized cells. This occurs through a process called gene expression. During cell differentiation, the cell size and shape changes dramatically, as does its ability to respond to signaling molecules.

Can stem cells be Unipotent?

e) Unipotent – These stem cells can produce only one cell type but have the property of self- renewal that distinguishes them from non-stem cells. Examples of a unipotent stem cell are a germ line stem cell (producing sperm) and an epidermal stem cell (producing skin).