What is a 15 17 translocation?
Acute promyelocytic leukemia is characterized by a specific t(15;17) chromosomal translocation and a particular sensitivity to retinoic acid. The translocation fuses the PML gene to the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) gene resulting in the production of a PML-RAR alpha fusion protein.
What is the PML-RARA translocation?
Promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha or PML-RARA refers to an abnormal fusion gene sequence. It is a specific rearrangement of genetic material from two separate chromosomes (chromosomal translocation) and is associated with a specific type of leukemia.
What genes are primarily affected in at 15 17 chromosomal translocation?
At the molecular level, as a result of the t(15;17) translocation, the gene for retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) on 17q21 fuses with a transcription factor gene (promyelocytic leukemia or PML) on 15q22, giving rise to a PML/RARA gene fusion product .
At which chromosomes PML-RARA genes are present?
The PML-RARA fusion gene is the most critical event involved in the pathogenesis of APL. This derives from a cytogenetic translocation leading to the rearrangement of PML and RARA genes [4,5,6,7]. PML is located in chromosome band 15q24, and contains nine exons producing several alternative spliced transcripts .
What leukemia is treated with vitamin A?
ATRA is a form of vitamin A that is typically part of the initial (induction) treatment of APL. It is given either along with chemo, or along with arsenic trioxide for the initial treatment of APL.
What is the significance of chromosomal translocation?
Translocation is a type of chromosomal abnormality in which a chromosome breaks and a portion of it reattaches to a different chromosome. Chromosomal translocations can be detected by analyzing karyotypes of the affected cells.
What is the most common chromosomal abnormality in AML?
Cytogenetics is the most important prognostic factor for predicting remission rate, relapse, and overall survival. Several chromosomal abnormalities such as monosomies or deletions of part or all of chromosomes 5 or 7 (–5/–7 AML) and trisomy 8 are common in AML.
Is APL leukemia curable?
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has become a curable disease by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-based induction therapy followed by two or three courses of consolidation chemotherapy. Currently around 90% of newly diagnosed patients with APL achieve complete remission (CR) and over 70% of patients are curable.
Does Vitamin D Help Leukaemia?
“Importantly, these results suggest that increased levels of UVB irradiance and vitamin D may help prevent development of leukemia.”
Is AML curable?
Although AML is a serious disease, it is treatable and often curable with chemotherapy with or without a bone marrow/stem cell transplant (see the Types of Treatment section).