What is bunker stemming?
What are bunker stem surveys? Bunker stem surveys occur onboard the vessel prior to stemming bunkers to prevent bunker supply shortage. Bunker cost are one of the largest operating expense incurred in a voyage.
What is bunker dispute?
These claims have ranged from variation in the parameters of the bunker supplied to presence of contaminants, such as ash and microbes. These claims can result in expensive claims not only because of the bunkers themselves but also related costs such as machinery damage, time lost, tank cleaning costs.
Why bunker tanks are not inserted?
Generally, bunkers have a flashpoint of greater than 60 degree Celsius. If the bunker tanks cannot reach 60 degree Celsius, it cannot produce cargo vapours that are rich in hydrocarbons; thus no explosion can occur. And thus, inert gas is not being used in bunker tanks.
What can go wrong in bunkering?
Although bunkering is a routine operation, it involves high risk. The underlying causes could be a high flow rate, incorrect line up, improper monitoring of both the tanks being bunkered and those not being bunkered, or not acting on high level alarms.
How long should you retain on board a sample of the fuel oil purchased?
It shall be retained for a period of three years after the fuel oil has been delivered on board.
What are bunkers?
1 : a bin or compartment for storage especially : one on shipboard for the ship’s fuel. 2a : a protective embankment or dugout especially : a fortified chamber mostly below ground often built of reinforced concrete and provided with embrasures. b : a sand trap or embankment constituting a hazard on a golf course.
What is IFO in shipping?
IFO stands for Intermediate Fuel Oil. The quality requirements that the fuel must meet are clearly described in the charter party and must be observed at all times.
What is bunker checklist?
Bunkering Checklist. Measures the content / volume of oil in each tank. Prepare tanks for the bunkering operation. Vessel to be securely docked or bunker barge be moored successfully.
What are the types of bunker fuel?
Ships generally use 3 types of marine fuels. Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) , Low Sulfur Fuel Oil (LSFO) and diesel oil. Different countries have different rules for burning fuel when the ship is at that place.
Why are bunker samples taken?
The parties often agree to jointly test a sample to determine if the fuel supplied was on-specification or not, and the result is binding on the parties. Even in the absence of an agreement, bunker samples will be relevant evidence that may help to resolve a dispute one way or another.
What is Regulation 18 of this Annex?
General points Regulation 18 specifically requires that fuel oil supplied to ships must be free from inorganic acids or chemical wastes that could jeopardise the safety of the ship, be harmful to ships’ personnel, or pollute the air.
Why do you need a bunker STEM survey?
Bunker stem surveys occur onboard the vessel prior to stemming bunkers to prevent bunker supply shortage. Bunker cost are one of the largest operating expense incurred in a voyage.
Where do stem bunkers come from in the BAF?
(42) The notes of the meeting of 30 September 1991 contain the following extract concerning the BAF:”… it should be pointed out that the north Atlantic is a much simpler trade to monitor having shorter sea distances compared to the Far East trade so that it can presumably be assumed that bunkers are only stemmed on New York and Rotterdam prices.
What does stemming mean in a search engine?
Many search engines treat words with the same stem as synonyms as a kind of query expansion, a process called conflation. A computer program or subroutine that stems word may be called a stemming program, stemming algorithm, or stemmer . A stemmer for English operating on the stem cat should identify such strings as cats, catlike, and catty.
Which is the sector with the most bunkers?
Among all sectors, emissions from transport and international bunkers grew the most, by around # per cent and # per cent respectively, followed by emissions from energy industries ( # per cent