What is hemoglobin D Los Angeles?

Hemoglobin D-Los Angeles is a normally-functioning oxygen carrier, and D trait (a single mutated gene) is completely silent. Homozygous hemoglobin D (2 mutated genes) is rare and is only occasionally reported to cause a very mild hemolytic anemia.

What is Hb D Punjab heterozygous?

Haemoglobin D-Punjab is one of the most common subvariants (55%) of haemoglobin D, which can be inherited as a homozygous or a heterozygous trait with other haemoglobinopathies. Though, haemoglobin D-Punjab is commonly seen, a heterozygous trait with beta thalassemia is a very rare presentation.

What is Haemoglobin D carrier?

Your genes also control the type of haemoglobin you inherit. The usual type is called ‘A’. You have inherited the usual haemoglobin A from one of your parents, and a gene that makes unusual haemoglobin (in your case haemoglobin D) from the other parent. We call this being a haemoglobin D carrier.

What is D thalassemia?

Hemoglobin D/beta thalassemia happens when the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen throughout the body is changed. This part that is changed is called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is important because it picks up oxygen in the lungs and carries it to the other parts of the body.

What causes HBD?

Hb D disease is the result of either β- or α-chain gene mutation. Sickle cell (SC) anemia is a homozygous state which represents the most severe form of the disease in this group, resulting from the inheritance of Hb S from both parents [160, 161].

What causes hemoglobin D?

Hemoglobin D is inherited from your parents, like hair or eye color. If one parent has hemoglobin D trait, there is a 50% (1 in 2) chance with each pregnancy of having a child with hemoglobin D trait. Hemoglobin D trait is not a disease, and usually has no symptoms. You may have hemoglobin D trait and not know it.

How is hemoglobin D formed?

Hemoglobin D (Hb D Punjab, also known as Hb D Los Angeles) is formed due to substitution of glutamine for glutamic acid, and Hb D Punjab is one of the most commonly observed abnormalities worldwide—found not only in the Punjab region of India but also in Italy, Belgium, Austria, and Turkey.

Where is hemoglobin found?

red blood cells
hemoglobin, also spelled haemoglobin, iron-containing protein in the blood of many animals—in the red blood cells (erythrocytes) of vertebrates—that transports oxygen to the tissues.

What is haemoglobin s?

Hemoglobin S (Hgb S) is an abnormal type of hemoglobin that you can inherit from your parents. Hgb S causes red blood cells to become stiff and abnormally shaped. Instead of having a normal round, disk shape, these red blood cells become sickle-shaped, or crescent-shaped.

Where are Hb D Punjab and HB Los Angeles found?

Hb D-Punjab and Hb D-Los Angeles are identical hemoglobins in which glutamine replaces glutamic acid at position 121 in the β chain (α 2 β 2121Glu→Gln ). Hb D-Punjab occurs in about 3% of the population in northwestern India, and Hb D-Los Angeles is seen in fewer than 2% of African Americans.

How is hemoglobin D Los Angeles disease inherited?

Hemoglobin D-Los Angeles (also known as D-Punjab) together with sickle hemoglobin creates a type of sickle cell disease that can cause significant health problems. How is Hemoglobin SD Disease Inherited? People inherit Hemoglobin SD disease from their parents.

Are there any health problems associated with Hemoglobin D?

People with hemoglobin D trait do not have health problems related to having the trait. People with hemoglobin D trait do not have hemoglobin D disease or sickle cell disease.

Which is better HBD Punjab or Hb D Iran?

Both the situations are clinically important because HbD-Punjab produces a significant sickling disorder when coinherited with HbS but with HbD-Iran, the combination is clinically benign. [7,8, 21] Like HbD-Iran Hb Lepore also elutes in A2 window. However, the HbA2 % in HbD-Iran (40-50%) is significantly more than that of Hb Lepore (10-18%).