What is the function of actinomycin D?

Actinomycin D is a well-known antibiotic of the actinomycin group that exhibits high antibacterial and antitumor activity. Actinomycin D has been widely used in clinical practice since 1954 as an anticancer drug for treating many tumors and it is also a useful tool in biochemistry and molecular biology.

What class of drug is actinomycin?

In some cases, health care professionals may use the trade name Cosmegen or other name Actinomycin-D when referring to the generic drug name dactinomycin. Drug type: Dactinomycin is an anti-cancer (“antineoplastic” or “cytotoxic”) chemotherapy drug.

What is the mechanism of action of doxorubicin?

Doxorubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: Doxorubicin forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation- …

What is the mechanism of action of cyclophosphamide?

MECHANISM OF ACTION: Cyclophosphamide is an alkylating agent of the nitrogen mustard type. 2 An activated form of cyclophosphamide, phosphoramide mustard, alkylates, or binds, to DNA. Its cytotoxic effect is mainly due to cross-linking of strands of DNA and RNA, and to inhibition of protein synthesis.

How does actinomycin D inhibit protein synthesis?

Actinomycin D (ActD), is an anti-neoplastic agent that inhibits RNA synthesis by binding to guanine residues and inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA polymerase [15,16]. It also causes single-strand breaks in DNA.

What enzymes are inactivated by antibiotic actinomycin D?

Actinomycin D. An antibiotic, produced by Actinomyces, capable of inhibiting DNA-dependent RNA synthesis, by binding to guanine residues and preventing elongation of the growing RNA chain.

How does actinomycin D bind to DNA?

Actinomycin D (ActD) (Figure 1) is a potent anticancer drug. ActD binds to DNA by intercalating its phenoxazone ring at a GpC step such that the two cyclic pentapeptides of the drug are located in the DNA minor groove (1,2).

What is the purpose of doxorubicin?

Doxorubicin is used in combination with other medications to treat certain types of bladder, breast, lung, stomach, and ovarian cancer; Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Hodgkin’s disease) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (cancer that begins in the cells of the immune system); and certain types of leukemia (cancer of the white blood cells …

What is the indication of doxorubicin?

Doxorubicin is also indicated for the treatment of cancers of the ovary, prostate, stomach, thyroid; small cell cancer of lung, liver; squamous cell cancer of head and neck; multiple myeloma, Hodgkin’s disease, lymphomas, acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

How cyclophosphamide is given?

It is usually given through a vein by injection or infusion (intravenous, IV) or by mouth in tablet form, depending upon diagnosis. Cyclophosphamide is also approved to be given by a shot into a muscle (IM), into the abdominal lining (intraperitoneal, IP), or into the lining of the lung (intrapleural).

What is the effect of actinomycin D on protein synthesis?

Inhibitors of RNA synthesis such as actinomycin D, 2-mercapto-1-(beta-4-pyridylethyl)benzimidazole, and cordycepin progressively inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis in intact nucleated mammalian cells independent of their effect on mRNA synthesis. The mechanism of this effect is unknown.

How much dactinomycin is in a Cosmegen injection?

COSMEGEN is a sterile, yellow to orange lyophilized powder for injection by the intravenous route or by regional perfusion after reconstitution. Each vial contains 0.5 mg (500 mcg) of dactinomycin and 20.0 mg of mannitol.

What is the mechanism of action of actinomycin D?

Mechanism. In cell biology, actinomycin D is shown to have the ability to inhibit transcription. Actinomycin D does this by binding DNA at the transcription initiation complex and preventing elongation of RNA chain by RNA polymerase. History. Actinomycin D was the first antibiotic shown to have anti-cancer activity.

Who was the first person to discover actinomycin D?

Actinomycin D was the first antibiotic shown to have anti- cancer activity. It was first isolated by Selman Waksman and his co-worker H. Boyd Woodruff in 1940. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 10, 1964 and launched by Merck Sharp and Dohme under the trade name Cosmegen.

What kind of cancer can actinomycin be used for?

Actinomycin is a clear, yellow liquid administered intravenously and most commonly used in treatment of a variety of cancers, including: 1 Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. 2 Wilms’ tumor. 3 Rhabdomyosarcoma. 4 Ewing’s sarcoma. 5 Malignant hydatidiform mole.