What is the function of the PARP protein?

PARP is a critical enzyme involved in DNA repair and many other cellular processes including transcription and modulation of chromatin structure. PARP plays a central role in NER and BER, and enables repair of DNA damage caused by alkylating agents and chemotherapeutic drugs.

What is PARP gene?

PARP1 (Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with PARP1 include Diphtheria and Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group A. Among its related pathways are SUMOylation and Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER).

How does PARP1 work?

PARP1 acts as a first responder that detects DNA damage and then facilitates choice of repair pathway. PARP1 contributes to repair efficiency by ADP-ribosylation of histones leading to decompaction of chromatin structure, and by interacting with and modifying multiple DNA repair factors.

How many PARP proteins are there?

The protein family of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) or diphtheria toxin-type ADP-ribose transfer- ases (ARTDs) are multidomain proteins originally identified as DNA repair factors. There are 17 PARP en- zymes in humans, and it is now evident that PARPs undertake more tasks than DNA repair.

What does a PARP inhibitor do?

A substance that blocks an enzyme in cells called PARP. PARP helps repair DNA when it becomes damaged. DNA damage may be caused by many things, including exposure to UV light, radiation, certain anticancer drugs, or other substances in the environment.

What is PARP in apoptosis?

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) is a nuclear enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose polymers onto itself and other nuclear proteins in response to DNA strand breaks (Figure 1). 1. During apoptosis, cleavage of PARP-1 in fragments of 89 and 24 kDa has become a useful hallmark of this type of cell death.

Is PARP a protein?

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, genomic stability, and programmed cell death.

What type of drug is a PARP inhibitor?

PARP inhibitors are a type of targeted cancer drug. They are a treatment for some women with ovarian cancer. They are also in trials as a treatment for other types of cancer. Olaparib, niraparib and rucaparib are all examples of PARP inhibitors.

What are PARP inhibitors used for?

Drugs known as PARP inhibitors are used to treat some women with advanced ovarian cancer that has returned after earlier treatment. Now, results from three new clinical trials show that the drugs might also benefit women who are newly diagnosed with advanced ovarian cancer.