What is the GULO gene?

Abstract. L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO) catalyzes the final step in vertebrate vitamin C biosynthesis. Vitamin C-incapable vertebrates lack the GULO gene. Gene structure and phylogenetic analyses showed that vertebrate GULO genes are 64-95% identical at the amino acid level and consist of 11 conserved exons.

What is the role of the GULO gene?

l-Gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO) is a critical enzyme present in most mammalian species that is required for the terminal step in vitamin C biosynthesis. Primates are absolutely dependent on exogenously supplied dietary vitamin C due to inactivation of the Gulo gene by mutation over 40 million years ago.

Do pigs have GULO gene?

You need to find out if vitamin C needs to be included in new animal foods designed for dogs, cows, cats, mice and guinea pigs. The GULO gene is present in mice and most other mammals, but is either missing, or is nonfunctional, in some mammals.

What animals have the GULO gene?

In conclusion, a GULO gene is found in the non-Bilateria Placozoa, Myxozoa and Anthozoa classes, and in the Protostomian Araneae family, the Gastropoda class, the Acari subclass, and the Priapulida, Annelida and Brachiopoda phyla lineages (Fig. 5).

Why do humans not produce vitamin C?

Most mammals generate vitamin C from d-glucose through gulonic acid in the liver. Humans, other primates, and guinea pigs cannot synthesize this vitamin because they lack the enzyme l-gulonolactone oxidase. Thus, they must obtain the vitamin from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption.

Why is it called vitamin C?

Later on, Szent Györgyi and Haworth chemically identified “C” as ascorbic acid, and named it so because ascorbic means “anti-scurvy.” Over the next century, what we now know as vitamin C became one of the most popular drugs in human history.

What type of primates still retain the ability to synthesize vitamin C?

Primates belonging to the Haplorrhini suborder (including prosimian tarsiers, new world monkeys, old world monkeys, humans and apes) have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C, whereas primates in the Strepsirrhini suborder (including lemurs) are reportedly able to produce this vitamin, Taylor explained.

What is Pseudogenization?

Pseudogenization is an evolutionary phenomenon where- by a gene loses its function by disruption to its regulatory or. coding sequence. Such loss of function is generally thought. to be detrimental to an organism and selectively disadvan-

Why can’t humans synthesize vitamin C?

In the human genome, a mutation at the coding region of a gene known as L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) renders this pathway dysfunctional. Thus, humans are unable to synthesize vitamin C on their own.

Which primates Cannot synthesize vitamin C?

What is vitamin D called?

Vitamin D, also known as calciferol, comprises a group of fat-soluble seco-sterols.

Can dogs produce vitamin C?

Vitamin C for Dogs Dogs can actually synthesize vitamin C on their own in their livers, but in some cases supplementation may offer health benefits.

What is the function of Gulo in plants?

L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) is the final enzyme of the biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) from glucose and galactose. Many animals (and most plants) possess a GULO gene that produces a functional protein.

How is the GULO gene broken in humans?

In still others — including humans and several other mammals such as primates, guinea pigs, and the bat genus Pteropus — the GULO gene is present but appears to have been “broken” by inactivating mutations. Hence, these organisms need to obtain their vitamin C through their diet.

Where is the gulonolactone pseudogene located on the chromosome?

Gulonolactone oxidase deficiency The non-functional gulonolactone oxidase pseudogene (GULOP) was mapped to human chromosome 8p21 that corresponds to an evolutionarily conserved segment on either porcine chromosome 4 (SSC4) or 14 (SSC14). GULO produces the precursor to ascorbic acid, which spontaneously converts to the vitamin (” vitamin C “).

Why does GULOP stop producing L-gulonolactone oxidase?

Johnson et al. have hypothesized that the mutation of the GULOP (pseudogene that produces L-gulonolactone oxidase) so that it stopped producing GULO may have been of benefit to early primates by increasing uric acid levels and enhancing fructose effects on weight gain and fat accumulation.