What is the reassortment of influenza?
Reassortment is the process by which influenza viruses swap gene segments. This genetic exchange is possible due to the segmented nature of the viral genome and occurs when two differing influenza viruses co-infect a cell.
What role do pigs play in influenza virus reassortment?
Genetic reassortment in pigs allows for the generation of novel influenza viruses and further demonstrates that pigs can serve as intermediate hosts and therefore as “mixing vessels” for human, swine and avian influenza viruses.
What are the 3 most common ways that pigs becoming infected with the flu virus?
There are many causes of respiratory disease in pigs, including influenza. Among influenza types, only type A influenza viruses are known to infect pigs….Influenza Virus Infections in Pigs and People
- Coughing (“barking”)
- High fevers.
- Breathing difficulties.
- Discharge from the nose.
- Going off feed.
What is the pathogen in swine flu?
The H1N1 flu, commonly known as swine flu, is primarily caused by the H1N1 strain of the flu (influenza) virus. H1N1 is a type of influenza A virus, and H1N1 is one of several flu virus strains that can cause the seasonal flu.
What viruses undergo reassortment?
In theory, any virus with a segmented genome can undergo reassortment. Among viruses that infect vertebrates, those that carry segmented genomes belong to the Arenaviridae, Birnaviridae, Bunyavirales, Orthomyxoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, and Reoviridae.
What is genomic reassortment?
Reassortment is the mixing of the genetic material of a species into new combinations in different individuals. Several different processes contribute to reassortment, including assortment of chromosomes, and chromosomal crossover.
What is genetic reassortment?
Genetic reassortment, the mixing of genes between two organisms to make a new genetic sequence known as a recombinant, is a powerful mechanism for evolution and adaptation. Sexual reproduction genetically recombines the genes of each parent. Each human is a recombinant of the parents’ genes.
What is meant by antigenic shift?
Another type of change is called “antigenic shift.” Shift is an abrupt, major change in a flu A virus, resulting in new HA and/or new HA and NA proteins in flu viruses that infect humans. Antigenic shift can result in a new flu A subtype.
What causes swine influenza in pigs?
Swine Influenza (Influenza in Swine) Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus that regularly causes outbreaks of influenza in pigs.
How is swine flu diagnosis in pigs?
Diagnosis of Influenza A Virus in Swine A clinical diagnosis (presumptive diagnosis) can be made by observing the sudden onset of a large number of pigs showing coughing, fever, and nasal secretions.
What do we mean by pathogen?
A pathogen is usually defined as a microorganism that causes, or can cause, disease. We have defined a pathogen as a microbe that can cause damage in a host.