Where is perlecan found?

Specifically, it is found in part of the extracellular matrix called the basement membrane, which is a thin, sheet-like structure that separates and supports cells in many tissues. Perlecan is also found in cartilage, a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development.

What do proteoglycans do?

Function. Proteoglycans are a major component of the animal extracellular matrix, the “filler” substance existing between cells in an organism. They are also involved in binding cations (such as sodium, potassium and calcium) and water, and also regulating the movement of molecules through the matrix.

Is perlecan a glycoprotein?

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are glycoproteins with one or more heparan sulfate chains, which are a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain (Domogatskaya et al., 2012). The heparan sulfate proteoglycans present in the basement membrane are perlecan, agrin, and collagen XVIII.

How does decorin work?

The primary function of decorin involves regulation during the cell cycle. It has been involved in the regulation of autophagy, of endothelial cell and inhibits angiogenesis. Other angiogenic growth factors that decorin inhibits are angiopoietin, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF).

What is a basal lamina?

Basal lamina are extracellular structures found closely apposed to the plasma membrane on the basal surface of epithelial and endothelial cells and surround muscle and fat tissues.

Is Perlecan a proteoglycan?

Perlecan is a large multidomain (five domains, labeled I-V) proteoglycan that binds to and cross-links many extracellular matrix (ECM) components and cell-surface molecules. Perlecan is synthesized by both vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells and deposited in the extracellular matrix.

Why is elastin important?

Elastin is a key protein of the extracellular matrix. It is highly elastic and present in connective tissue allowing many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. Elastin helps skin to return to its original position when it is poked or pinched.

What is the basement membrane function?

The basement membrane (BM) is a special type of extracellular matrix that lines the basal side of epithelial and endothelial tissues. Functionally, the BM is important for providing physical and biochemical cues to the overlying cells, sculpting the tissue into its correct size and shape.

What does perlecan do to smooth muscle cells?

Perlecan is a potent inhibitor of smooth muscle cell proliferation and is thus thought to help maintain vascular homeostasis. Perlecan can also promote growth factor (e.g., FGF2) activity and thus stimulate endothelial growth and re-generation.

Why is perlecan important to the endothelial barrier?

Perlecan is also a key component of the vascular extracellular matrix, where it interacts with a variety of other matrix components and helps to maintain the endothelial barrier function. Perlecan is a potent inhibitor of smooth muscle cell proliferation and is thus thought to help maintain vascular homeostasis.

What kind of protein is the perlecan protein?

Perlecan (PLC) also known as basement membrane-specific heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein (HSPG) or heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HSPG2 gene. Perlecan was originally isolated from a tumor cell line and shown to be present in all native basement membranes.

What is the role of perlecan in ECM?

Perlecan is an essential molecule in tissue and organ development with roles in ECM stabilization and the maintenance of the functional status of mature connective tissues [52]. Michael G. Kinsella, Thomas N. Wight, in Chemistry and Biology of Heparin and Heparan Sulfate, 2005 Perlecan is the product of a single gene and has no close relatives.